Tuesday, July 29, 2014

How to understand the concepts of the 7 layer OSI model in computer communication

How to understand the concepts of the 7 layer OSI model in computer communication

The Seven Layer OSI Model

The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI) is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the internal functions of a communication system by partitioning it into abstraction layers. The model is a product of the Open Systems Interconnection project at the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), maintained by the identification ISO/IEC 7498-1. The model group communication functions into seven logical layers. A layer serves the layer above it and is served by the layer below it. For example, a layer that provides error-free communications across a network provides the path needed by applications above it, while it calls the next lower layer to send and receive packets that make up the contents of that path. Two instances at one layer are connected by a horizontal connection on that layer. History of this model is described hereunder. Work on a layered model of network architecture was started and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) began to develop its OSI framework architecture. OSI had two major components: an abstract model of networking, called the Basic Reference Model or seven-layer model, and a set of specific protocols. The concept of a seven-layer model was provided by the work of Charles Bachman, Honeywell Information Services. Various aspects of OSI design evolved from experiences with the ARPANET, the fledgling Internet, NPLNET, EIN, CYCLADES network and the

work in IFIP WG6.1. The new design was documented in ISO 7498 and its various addenda. In this model, a networking system was divided into layers. Within each layer, one or more entities implement its functionality. Each entity interacted directly only with the layer immediately beneath it, and provided facilities for use by the layer above it. Protocols enabled an entity in one host to interact with a corresponding entity at the same layer in another host. Service definitions abstractly described the functionality provided to an (N)-layer by an (N-1) layer, where N was one of the seven layers of protocols operating in the local host. The OSI standards documents are available from the ITU-T as the X.200-series of recommendations. Some of the protocol specifications were also available as part of the ITU-T X series. The equivalent ISO and ISO/IEC standards for the OSI model were available from ISO, but only some of them without fees. The layers are given under:
7. Application Layer - Network process to application
6. Presentation Layer - Data representation, encryption and decryption, convert machine dependent data to machine independent data
5. Session Layer - Interhost communication, managing sessions between applications 
4. Transport Layer - Reliable delivery of packets between points on a network.
3. Network Layer - Addressing, routing and (not necessarily reliable) delivery of datagrams between points on a network.
2. Data link Layer - A reliable direct point-to-point data connection.
1. Physical Layer - A (not necessarily reliable) direct point-to-point data connection.
Each layer is described below.

Physical Layer:
In the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking, the physical layer or layer 1 is the first (lowest) layer. The implementation of this layer is often termed PHY. The physical layer consists of the basic networking hardware transmission technologies of a network. It is a fundamental layer underlying the logical data structures of the higher level functions in a network. Due to the plethora of available hardware technologies with widely varying characteristics, this is perhaps the most complex layer in the OSI architecture. The physical layer defines the means of transmitting raw bits rather than logical data packets over a physical link connecting network nodes. The bit stream may be grouped into code words or symbols and converted to a physical signal that is transmitted over a hardware transmission medium. The physical layer provides an electrical, mechanical, and procedural interface to the transmission medium. The shapes and properties of the electrical connectors, the frequencies to broadcast on, the modulation scheme to use and similar low-level parameters, are specified here. Within the semantics of the OSI network architecture, the physical layer translates logical communications requests from the data link layer into hardware-specific operations to effect transmission or reception of electronic signals.

List of services:
The major functions and services performed by the physical layer are: 
Bit-by-bit or symbol-by-symbol delivery
Providing a standardized interface to physical transmission media, including Mechanical specification of electrical connectors and cables, for example maximum cable length Electrical specification of transmission line signal level and impedance Radio interface, including electromagnetic spectrum frequency allocation and specification of signal strength, analog bandwidth, etc. Specifications for IR over optical fiber or a wireless IR communication link 
Line coding
Bit synchronization in synchronous serial communication
Start-stop signalling and flow control in asynchronous serial communication
Circuit switching
Multiplexing - Establishment and termination of circuit switched connections
Carrier sense and collision detection utilized by some level 2 multiple access protocols
Equalization filtering, training sequences, pulse shaping and other signal processing of physical signals
Forward error correction for example bitwise convolutional coding
Bit-interleaving and other channel coding
The physical layer is also concerned with Bit rate, Point-to-point, multipoint or point-to-multipoint line configuration, Physical network topology, for example bus, ring, mesh or star network, Serial or parallel communication, Simplex, half duplex or full duplex transmission mode, and Auto negotiation

Data Link Layer:
In the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking, the data link layer is layer 2. In TCP/IP reference model, it corresponds to, or is part of the link layer. The data link layer is the protocol layer that transfers data between adjacent network nodes in a wide area network or between nodes on the same local area network segment. The data link layer provides the functional and procedural means to transfer data between network entities and might provide the means to detect and possibly correct errors that may occur in the physical layer. Examples of data link protocols are Ethernet for local area networks (multi-node), the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), HDLC and ADCCP for point-to-point (dual-node) connections. The data link layer is concerned with local delivery of frames between devices on the same LAN. Data-link frames, as these protocol data units are called, do not cross the boundaries of a local network. Inter-network routing and global addressing are higher layer functions, allowing data-link protocols to focus on local delivery, addressing, and media arbitration. In this way, the data link layer is analogous to a neighbourhood traffic cop; it endeavours to arbitrate between parties contending for access to a medium, without concern for their ultimate destination. When devices attempt to use a medium simultaneously, frame collisions occur. Data-link protocols specify how devices detect and recover from such collisions, and may provide mechanisms to reduce or prevent them.
Date Link Layer Services:
1. Encapsulation of network layer data packets into frames
2. Frame synchronization
3. Logical link control (LLC) sublayer: Error control (automatic repeat request,ARQ), in addition to ARQ provided by some transport-layer protocols, to forward error correction (FEC) techniques provided on the physical layer, and to error-detection and packet canceling provided at all layers, including the network layer. Data-link-layer error control (i.e. retransmission of erroneous packets) is provided in wireless networks and V.42 telephone network modems, but not in LAN protocols such as Ethernet, since bit errors are so uncommon in short wires. In that case, only error detection and cancelling of erroneous packets are provided. Flow control, in addition to the one provided on the transport layer. Data-link-layer error control is not used in LAN protocols such as Ethernet, but in modems and wireless networks.
4. Media access control (MAC) sublayer:
Multiple access protocols for channel-access control, for example CSMA/CD protocols for collision detection and re-transmission in Ethernet bus networks and hub networks, or the CSMA/CA protocol for collision avoidance in wireless networks.
Physical addressing (MAC addressing)
LAN switching (packet switching) including MAC filtering and spanning tree protocol
Data packet queuing or scheduling
Store-and-forward switching or cut-through switching
Quality of Service (QoS) control
Virtual LANs (VLAN)
Network Layer:
In the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking, the network layer is layer 3. The network layer is responsible for packet forwarding including routing through intermediate routers, whereas the data link layer is responsible for media access control, flow control and error checking.
Functions of the network layer:
The network layer provides the functional and procedural means of transferring variable-length data sequences from a source to a destination host via one or more networks, while maintaining the quality of service functions. Functions of the network layer include:
Connection model: connectionless communication
For example, IP is connectionless, in that a datagram can travel from a sender to a recipient without the recipient having to send an acknowledgement. Connection-oriented protocols exist at other, higher layers of the OSI model.
Host addressing
Every host in the network must have a unique address that determines where it is. This address is normally assigned from a hierarchical system. For example, you can be "Fred Murphy" to people in your house, "Fred Murphy, 1 Main Street" to Dubliners, or "Fred Murphy, 1 Main Street, Dublin" to people in Ireland, or "Fred Murphy, 1 Main Street, Dublin, Ireland" to people anywhere in the world. On the Internet, addresses are known as Internet Protocol (IP) addresses.
Message forwarding
Since many networks are partitioned into sub networks and connect to other networks for wide-area communications, networks use specialized hosts, called gateways or routers, to forward packets between networks. This is also of interest to mobile applications, where a user may move from one location to another, and it must be arranged that his messages follow him. Version 4 of the Internet Protocol (IPv4) was not designed with this feature in mind, although mobility extensions exist. IPv6 has a better designed solution.
Within the service layering semantics of the OSI network architecture, the network layer responds to service requests from the transport layer and issues service requests to the data link layer.
Transport Layer:
In computer networking, a transport layer provides end-to-end or host-to-host communication services for applications within a layered architecture of network components and protocols. The transport layer provides services such as connection-oriented data stream support, reliability, flow control, and multiplexing. Transport layer implementations are contained in both the TCP/IP model (RFC 1122), which is the foundation of the Internet, and the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model of general networking, however, the definitions of details of the transport layer are different in these models. In the Open Systems Interconnection model the transport layer is most often referred to as Layer 4. The best-known transport protocol is the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). It lent its name to the title of the entire Internet Protocol Suite, TCP/IP. It is used for connection-oriented transmissions, whereas the connectionless User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is used for simpler messaging transmissions. TCP is the more complex protocol, due to its stateful design incorporating reliable transmission and data stream services. Other prominent protocols in this group are the Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) and the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP).
Services in Transport Layer:
Transport layer services are conveyed to an application via a programming interface to the transport layer protocols. The services may include the following features:
Connection-oriented communication: It is normally easier for an application to interpret a connection as a data stream rather than having to deal with the underlying connection-less models, such as the datagram model of the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) and of the Internet Protocol (IP).
Same order delivery: The network layer doesn't generally guarantee that packets of data will arrive in the same order that they were sent, but often this is a desirable feature. This is usually done through the use of segment numbering, with the receiver passing them to the application in order. This can cause head-of-line blocking.
Reliability: Packets may be lost during transport due to network congestion and errors. By means of an error detection code, such as a checksum, the transport protocol may check that the data is not corrupted, and verify correct receipt by sending an ACK or NACK message to the sender. Automatic repeat request schemes may be used to retransmit lost or corrupted data.
Flow control: The rate of data transmission between two nodes must sometimes be managed to prevent a fast sender from transmitting more data than can be supported by the receiving data buffer, causing a buffer overrun. This can also be used to improve efficiency by reducing buffer underrun.
Congestion avoidance: Congestion control can control traffic entry into a telecommunications network, so as to avoid congestive collapse by attempting to avoid oversubscription of any of the processing or link capabilities of the intermediate nodes and networks and taking resource reducing steps, such as reducing the rate of sending packets. For example, automatic repeat requests may keep the network in a congested state; this situation can be avoided by adding congestion avoidance to the flow control, including slow-start. This keeps the bandwidth consumption at a low level in the beginning of the transmission, or after packet retransmission.
Multiplexing: Ports can provide multiple endpoints on a single node. For example, the name on a postal address is a kind of multiplexing, and distinguishes between different recipients of the same location. Computer applications will each listen for information on their own ports, which enables the use of more than one network service at the same time. It is part of the transport layer in the TCP/IP model, but of the session layer in the OSI model.

Session Layer
In the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking, the session layer is layer 5. The session layer provides the mechanism for opening, closing and managing a session between end-user application processes, i.e., a semi-permanent dialogue. Communication sessions consist of requests and responses that occur between applications. Session-layer services are commonly used in application environments that make use of remote procedure calls (RPCs). An example of a session-layer protocol is the OSI protocol suite session-layer protocol, also known as X.225 or ISO 8327. In case of a connection loss this protocol may try to recover the connection. If a connection is not used for a long period, the session-layer protocol may close it and re-open it. It provides for either full duplex or half-duplex operation and provides synchronization points in the stream of exchanged messages. Other examples of session layer implementations include Zone Information Protocol (ZIP) – the AppleTalk protocol that coordinates the name binding process, and Session Control Protocol (SCP) – the DEC net Phase IV session-layer protocol. Within the service layering semantics of the OSI network architecture, the session layer responds to service requests from the presentation layer and issues service requests to the transport layer.

Services in Session Layer:
Session restoration (check pointing and recovery)
The session layer of the OSI model is responsible for session check pointing and recovery. It allows information of different streams, perhaps originating from different sources, to be properly combined or synchronized.
An example application is web conferencing, in which the streams of audio and video must be synchronous to avoid so-called lip synch problems. Flow control ensures that the person displayed on screen is the current speaker.
Another application is in live TV programs, where streams of audio and video need to be seamlessly merged and transitioned from one to the other to avoid silent airtime or excessive overlap.
Presentation Layer:
In the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking, the presentation layer is layer 6 and serves as the data translator for the network. It is sometimes called the syntax layer. 
The presentation layer is responsible for the delivery and formatting of information to the application layer for further processing or display. It relieves the application layer of concern regarding syntactical differences in data representation within the end-user systems. An example of a presentation service would be the conversion of an EBCDIC-coded text computer file to an ASCII-coded file. The presentation layer is the lowest layer at which application programmers consider data structure and presentation, instead of simply sending data in the form of datagrams or packets between hosts. This layer deals with issues of string representation - whether they use the Pascal method (an integer length field followed by the specified amount of bytes) or the C/C++ method (null-terminated strings, e.g. "thisisastring\0"). The idea is that the application layer should be able to point at the data to be moved, and the presentation layer will deal with the rest. Serialization of complex data structures into flat byte-strings (using mechanisms such as TLV or XML) can be thought of as the key functionality of the presentation layer.
Encryption is typically done at this level too, although it can be done on the application, session, transport, or network layers, each having its own advantages and disadvantages. Decryption is also handled at the presentation layer. For example, when logging on to bank account sites the presentation layer will decrypt the data as it is received. Another example is representing structure, which is normally standardized at this level, often by using XML. As well as simple pieces of data, like strings, more complicated things are standardized in this layer. Two common examples are 'objects' in object-oriented programming, and the exact way that streaming video is transmitted.
In many widely used applications and protocols, no distinction is made between the presentation and application layers. For example, HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP), generally regarded as an application-layer protocol, has presentation-layer aspects such as the ability to identify character encoding for proper conversion, which is then done in the application layer. Within the service layering semantics of the OSI network architecture, the presentation layer responds to service requests from the application layer and issues service requests to the session layer.
In the OSI model: the presentation layer ensures the information that the application layer of one system sends out is readable by the application layer of another system. For example, a PC program communicates with another computer, one using extended binary coded decimal interchange code (EBCDIC) and the other using ASCII to represent the same characters. If necessary, the presentation layer might be able to translate between multiple data formats by using a common format.

Data conversion
Character code translation
Encryption and Decryption

Presentation Layer:
In the Internet model, the application layer is an abstraction layer reserved for communications protocols and methods designed for process-to-process communications across an Internet Protocol (IP) computer network. Application layer protocols use the underlying transport layer protocols to establish process-to-process connections via ports. In the OSI model, the definition of its application layer is narrower in scope. The OSI model defines the application layer as being the user interface – responsible for displaying the information received to the user. The OSI application layer is responsible for displaying data and images to the user in a human-recognizable format and to interface with the presentation layer below it.  OSI separates functionality above the transport layer at two additional levels, the session layer and the presentation layer, specifying strict modular separation of functionality at these layers. It also provides protocol implementations for each layer.

Saturday, July 26, 2014

Computer Integrated Manufacturing 08th Semester Question Anna University Question Papers

Computer Integrated Manufacturing 08th Semester Question Anna University Question Papers
Semester & Branch
08 / Mechanical Engineering

Subject Name           
Computer Integrated Manufacturing
Max. Marks
Subject Code
Max. Time
90 min

                                                                      Part A                                                   (5X2 =10)

Define Scaling (outcome a, learning skill -  remembering)
Define Dimensioning (outcome a, learning skill -  remembering)
What is translation? (outcome a, learning skill -  remembering)
Draw the communication matrix of CIM (outcome a, learning skill -  remembering)
What is the function of the presentation layer in OSI model? (outcome a, learning skill -  remembering)

Part B

6 (a)
Describe the changing manufacturing and management scenario after the development of CIM. (outcome a, learning skill -  remembering)


6 (b)
List some CIM hardware and CIM software (outcome a, learning skill -  remembering)

7 (a)
What do you understand by term islands of automation? List and explain any six islands of automation. (outcome a, learning skill -  remembering)


7 (b)
Explain the communication matrix in CIM (outcome a, learning skill -  remembering)

8 (a)
Explain the data transmission methods in CIM (outcome a, learning skill -  remembering)


8 (b)
What is CIM II? Explain its benefits (outcome a, learning skill -  remembering)

Prepared by

J. DURAIMANI          

Sunday, July 20, 2014

Fundamentals of Computer Communications

Fundamentals of Computer Communications
In search of fundamentals of computer communications in CIM? This article will be of great help to you. Read it completely to know what all the concepts are there, how the transformation of information in CIM takes place, etc.

Some common terms relating to communications are: Data - entities that covey meaning, Information - the content or interpretation of data, Signals - electric or electromagnetic encoding of data, Signalling - the act of propagating of data by processing of signals

Note that data and information are not the same thing. Data is raw, whereas is processes data. Information displays some useful message, whereas data merely contains it. Nonetheless, as is common practiced, this text uses the terms data and interchangeably. In manufacturing, as elsewhere, data and information are generated, collected, manipulated, transmitted, stored, retrieved, plotted, and shared.

Data communication using computers began with minicomputers. Later, when microcomputers became inexpensive and powerful, data communications applications proliferated. In fact, microcomputers were developed with communications in mind. That is obvious from their serial asynchronous communication capability through RS-232 as well as the parallel ports. Despite this standard, however, there are incompatibility problems. RS-232 ports limit the distance between the communicating devices. Paper and magnetic tapes were developed as alternatives to direct online communication. While they are used to move large amounts of data between devices separated by any distance, their drawback is the requirement for physically moving the data.

Regardless of the types of source and destination, the computer or terminal usually serves as a communication link in CIM environments. Consider, for example, the case of a machine tool operator who requires input, say a part program, from the plant host computer. The operator sends a request through the machine control unit (MCU) to the host, which downloads the program. In effect, then, communication between the operator and machine occurs via a computer, the MCU.

As with human conservation, computer communication involves three levels: cognitive, language, and transmission. The cognitive level requires that the devices have enough intelligence to take part in communication. The language level demands that both understand a common language. The transmission level requires a physical mechanism for information transfer. Each of three levels of the sender must be compatible with that of the receiver. Human communication follows some rules (etiquette or protocol). Even when they are broken, they allow communication. For example, a speaker who does not possess high proficiency in English or has a difficult accent can still be understood. The protocols of computer communications do not allow such variations.

Most computer communications take place in a way similar to communication between two individuals. Communications technology principles are easier to comprehend if we keep  in mind the situation of two persons communicating with each other. Consider, for example, what is happening at this moment between you as a reader and me as a author. Whatever I have to say about communications relating to CIM is here in this page you are reading. We are communicating with each other , albeit in a one-way mode (only from author to reader). In a two-way mode, called bidirectional, the communicating partners or devices change their roles of receiver and transmitter as and when required.

Irrespective of the mode, whether unidirectional or bidirectional, communication between two participants such as persons, computers, machines, or any combination, involves these three components: Transmitter or sender - the source of information, Receiver - the person or device needing the information, Medium - the path through which information flows.

In addition, a language - the protocol - must exist for communications to take place. In our example of communications between you and me, I represent the transmitter, you the receiver, this article the medium, and the English the protocol. The process of transferring information within CIM involves three basic issues: 1. Representation and signalling of data, 2.Medium and 3. Networking of devices which will be later in separate articles.

Wednesday, July 16, 2014

SV University III year DDE(MBA) Exam Result November 2014 got published

Are you looking for the exam results of III year DDE(MBA) SV University (Sri Venkateswara University)? The results got published today before few hours ago. Candidates now check the results at www.school9.com and in official website http://www.svuniversity.ac.in. The exam was held in November 2013.

How to check the results of SV University III year DDE(MBA) Exam results Nov 2013

Are you eargerly waiting to check out your results for MBA III year exams? Well, follow the steps provided below to know your results quickly. 

  1. Open http://schools9.com and click on the result link for SV University III year DDE(MBA) Exam results Nov 2013
  2. Or directly open the following URL, http://schools9.com/andhra/svu-dde-mba-exam-results160714.htm
  3. Now enter your resister number there. Register number will be in your hall ticket. Enter it and press submit button.
  4. Then your MBA III year exam results will be displayed. If you want to take a print, press on print button available there. That's all
Alternatively, you can check out the results of SV University III year DDE(MBA) Exam results Nov 2013 at the official website http://www.svuniversity.ac.in which is very slow now due to over loading and traffic.

Monday, July 14, 2014

2nd 4th 6th Sem Anna Univ Results 2014 April May Declared for UG and PG courses

2nd 4th 6th Sem Anna Univ Results 2014 April May Declared for UG and PG courses
Anna University Results has been declared at the official website coe1.annauniv.edu/aucoe/index.php and coe2.annauniv.edu/aucoe/index.php. The results announced are for second, fourth and sixth semester B.E/B.Tech and PG examinations. This even semester examination results are published after one day delay. Previously it had to be published on 13th July 2014. But due to some technical error, the results were not able to publish on the said date by Anna University. However, Anna University rectified the technical issues quickly and announced the results on 14th July 2014 around 01:45 am (in the early morning). The results announcement got viral and spread among the students immediately. The students are eagerly checking their results of Anna University without sleep. So anna university coe students portals got crowded and slow down the results display. Many of the students were not able to check their semester results due to the huge traffic. So students may try to find alternate way to check their results. But no external websites are not involved in the results publishing this time except the rejinpaul server which is also very slow. Then how to check their results? Is there any possibilities? Hardly, there is a possibility to check the Anna university results quickly. That is, to use the cached version of Anna university coe portals. To get the cached version, search using the Anna University coe portal address in Google and move to a down arrow indicated under the search results. Click on it and select cached. This cached version is a screen shot of the coe websites by Google at particular interval. It is not a live version. If your results screen is taken by Google, you can see the Anna University results April may 2014 results. Otherwise NO. The results announcement details are available in the indiastudychannel website too. You can check out them at the following links.
1. Anna University UG PG Results of April May 2014 Exams
2. Know your subjects if you don't remember against the subject codes given in the results

Wednesday, July 9, 2014

IRCTC New Generation Website - Migrate to IRCTC new site - Get UR tickets online now

IRCTC new online booking website - IRCTC online reservation System - UR tickets can be booked in IRCTC new website - www.nget.irctc.co.in

IRCTC has moved to new website www.nget.irctc.co.in. It has already sent an alert via SMS to all IRCTC users instructing them to migrate to the IRCTC new generation website. With this new site, now the users can able to get internet ticket for even Unreserved tickets as well. With the old systems, IRCTC users had several disadvantages and difficulties that are overcame now withe the IRCTC new system. You can use the same user ID and Password the new IRCTC website. For more details, visit the site now at www.nget.irctc.co.in

Sunday, July 6, 2014

2014 Final Counselling for MDS programme at NTR University postponed to 10th July 2014

2014 Final Counselling for MDS programme at NTR University postponed to 10th July 2014
NTR University of Health Sciences has postponed the 2nd and final counseling for Master of Dental Surgery (MDS) course to 10th July 2014. Earlier it was set on July 7 and 8. It is due to the government’s instructions. Also, the Medical Board examination for physically challenged candidates are postponed to July 9.

The venue for the counselling will be Siddhartha Medical College, Vijayawada as pe the instructions given in the schedule. The seats that are vacant in the first phase counseling and also the resultant vacancies are to be filled in 2nd & final counseling. The Counselling will be for the candidates ranking from 01st to last.

Certificates Verification  and counseling for Physically Challenged candidates qualified in MDS ET-2014.

All the Physically Challenged candidates who are qualified in MDS Entrance Test held on 23rd February 2014 are hereby informed to appear before the Medical Board at Siddhartha Medical College, Vijayawada on 09-07-2014 at 11.00 am. They are all requested to come with all relevant certificates for verification and confirmation of status of disability as per the guidelines of Government of India. The time for the counseling for Physically Challenged quota seats will start at 2.00 PM on 09-07-2014 at Siddhartha Medical College, Vijayawada

Only the confirmed candidates by the Medical Board are only eligible for selection against the seats reserved under Physically Challenged quota. Those candidates who fail to attend before the Medical Board will not be considered under Physically Challenged quota.

SSC Upcoming notification 2014

Are you looking for SSC examinations? You can check out the upcoming SSC notification for the year 2014 in this post. SSC is one the major Govt recruitment organisation in India. This year 2014, totally 09 recruitment are available out which 07 SSC notification have been expired. The candidates are expected to try hard to achieve a Govt job through remaining 02 upcoming SSC notifications. The two upcoming SSC notifications are:  Combined Higher Secondary (10+2)  Level Exam 2014, and Junior Translator (CSOLS) /Jr.Hindi Translators Exam, 2014. The SSC notification for the former one is to be released on 19th July 2014 (09-07-2014) and the last date will be 15th August 2014 (15-08-2014). The exam will be on 02nd and 09th November 2014 on Sundays. The SSC notification for latter one will be released on 09th August 2014 (09-08-2014) and the last date to apply is set on 05th September 2014 (05-09-014). The SSC exam for the same will be conducted on 07th December 2014 on Sunday (07-12-2014). See the list of expired and upcoming SSC notification 2014 at the image provided below.

2014 SSC notifications and upcoming notification as of now (06th July 2014)

Expired SSC notifications 2014:-

1.  SSC Multi Tasking (Non-Technical) Staff  Exam, 2014

2.  SSC Combined Graduate Level (Tier-I)  Exam, 2014

3.  Junior Engineer (Civil & Electrical)  SSC Exam, 2014

4. SSC  Rectt. of SI in CAPFs, ASI in CISF and SI in Delhi Police Exam, 2014

5.  Jr. Hindi Translator in Subordinate  Offices SSC Exam, 2014

6.  Combined Graduate Level (Tier-II)  Exam SSC, 2014

7. SSC Stenographer Gr.C&D Exam 2014

SSC Upcoming notification 2014:-

1.  SSC Combined Higher Secondary (10+2)  Level Exam. 2014

2.  Junior Translator (CSOLS) /Jr.Hindi Translators SSC Exam., 2014

For more details visit, http://ssc.nic.in/notice/examnotice/Note%20CGLE14.pdf or http://ssc.nic.in/examinations/Tentative_schedule%202014.pdf

Saturday, July 5, 2014

2014 CAP Calicut University second allotment results and rank list got published

Are you waiting for the Calicut University CAP second allotment results 2014? Calicut university has today published the CAP results for first year UG degree along with rank list. Results are available at the college official link, http://www.cuonline.ac.in/ranking/index.php

How to check your CAP second allotment results 2014

Calicut University has released the results 2014 which is commonly called as centralized admission process second allotment. Those who have opted for first year UG degree, can check their result at the official server.  Students can also access College wise allotment, Rank list, last index, etc. Every student will have the CAP ID provided by the Calicut university. Using this CAP ID, students will abe to check their results. The CAP ID will start with the CAP following by 9 digit number. For Example, CAP181000001. Read the following steps to check out the results along with rank list.

1. Open http://www.cuonline.ac.in/ranking/index.php
2. Enter your CAP ID in the box provided
3. Hit on 'Submit' to get your allotment

If you want to check college wise rank list, you must access this URL, http://www.cuonline.ac.in/ranking/allot.php . After opening this page, you should select your college and then select the programme. Only Programme will be visible after selecting the college therein in CAP. The rank list has also been published. Know your rank by browsing the webpage, http://cuonline.ac.in/ranking/last.php . You can also check CAP last index and candidates not paid fee details.

Friday, July 4, 2014

TNPSC VAO 2014 Exam Results coming soon

TNPSC VAO 2014 Exam Results coming soon

VAO Exam Results 2014 from TNPSC

Are you looking for TNPSC exam results for VAO examination held on June 14, 2014? Check out the latest information on TNPSC VAO 2014 exam results in this post. Over 4,00,000 people had applied for TNPSC VAO exam 2014 and nearly 50,000 candidates didn't come to write the exam. It is said that each post is competed by nearly 451 candidates. Now it's the time to know the results. Every body is looking eagerly to know their VAO exam result. According to the latest news, TNPSC exam results will be announced shortly. It is expected to release during 02nd week of July 2014. Know how to check out TNPSC 2014 VAO exam results from the following instructions.

  1. Go to the official website www.tnpsc.gov.in or http://tnpscexams.net/
  2. Find out the results link and click on it. It will have flash down menu where you will see the last updated link. If VAO exam results are published, you will see the corresponding link in this page. Just click on it.
  3. Enter your VAO exam 2014 Registration Number
  4. Enter your D.O.B if needed
  5. Click on Submit button to display your result

What will you do if you are not able to see your VAO exam result 2014?

Many times, as soon as the results got published on any website server, people will be flooded there so that the server will slow down and even get error messages repeatedly. So don't worry about this. You have other way to know your VAO result quickly. How? Just Search with the result link in the Google and you see a drop down arrow on result of Google pages. Point there with your mouse and you can see a term Cached. Click it to view your result. You will surely know your VAO result through this page which is nothing but a snapshot of your result page by Google. We wish you to get success in your VAO results to get a Govt job1

Sardar Patel University has declared the B.Sc first semester results 2014

Sardar Patel University has declared the B.Sc first semester results 2014
Are you looking for the results 2014 of Sardar Patel University? The result has been declared yesterday for the Sardar Patel University, SPU. Those who have appeared for B.Sc degree first semester examination can check out their result online as well as through SMS. Read further to know how to check B.Sc 01st semester exam results 2014.

Check B.Sc I semester 2014 exam results

The results has been officially published on 03rd July 2014 around 01:00 pm. If you belong to SPU and have written the first semester examinations, you can check your result online at the link, http://results.gujarateducation.net/spu/

If you want to know your B.Sc results 2014 through SMS, Just follow the instructions provided below:
Send an SMS by typing, RESULT<space>SPUBSC1<space>STUDENT NUMBER to 56263
Example - RESULT SPUBSC1 1234 , and Send it to 56263

Wednesday, July 2, 2014

Results published for Kerala plus one (+1) HSCAP first allotment 2014 with rank list

Results published for Kerala plus one (+1) HSCAP first allotment 2014 with rank list

The result for Kerala higher secondary plus one first allotment

Kerala plus one (+1) HSCAP 2014 first allotment results and rank list have been published today at the official website, http://www.hscap.kerala.gov.in. If you are the one among the applicants for admission into Plus one courses in Kerala for the academic year 2014-15, you can now check your first allotment results. What you have to do is just login with your application number and date of birth and by selecting the district. The results are listed at http://www.hscap.kerala.gov.in/hscapresult_2o14_first/main/login.php.

Earlier on June 24, Plus one trial allotment results have been published and students have obtained enough time for re-arrangement and modify their options. The resulting changes of options may cause the changes of your first allotment results from the trial allotment results. If you got allotment by HSCAP admission process, you must take the admission into the concerned school from 29th June 2014. If you fail to get admission on the prescribed time, your admission will be liable to cancel. If so, you will not be considered for the further allotments of HSCAP single window allotment process.

How to check Kerala higher secondary plus one admission first allotment results 2014

By the way, if you want to check your first allotment results of plus one admission 2014 in Kerala state, you can use the official website http://www.hscap.kerala.gov.in which is especially created for single window admission process. You can check your admission result directly at http://www.hscap.kerala.gov.in/hscapresult_2o14_first/main/login.php.

Enter your their plus one application number, date of birth and select the appropriate district to the allotment status in HSCAP 2014 allotment process. You need to take admission before the prescribed time in order to get the permanent allotment in HSCAP.

Documents to be produced in taking admission in plus one through HSCAP

  • Allotment memo/ letter
  • Qualifying examination certificate
  • Transfer certificate(TC)
  • Conduct certificate
  • Certificates to prove to avail the bonus point
  • Certificates to prove other benefits to avail

It is very important to note that your second language options in the application form. The form should be signed by both parent and student while taking admission in the concerned school. The allotment list consists of your provisional rank details and certificates which to be produced on the schools.

How to cancel higher options in HSCAP plus one admission after first allotment results

If you are satisfied with your present plus one HSCAP first allotment results, then you have to cancel your higher options in order to maintain the allotment. You should give your application for cancellation of higher options on the same school in which you are allotted. How to submit the application. Follow the steps provided below,

1. Download the application form from the official website.
2. Submit the same in the school in which you got an allotment seat.

Important dates to note for HSCAP admission 2014

Trial allotment started on: 24th June 2014
1st allotment done on: 30th June 2014
Sports Quota special plus one HSCAP 2014 allotment results to be announced on: July 1 2014
Last date for main allotments: 9/07/2014
Commencement of classes: 14th July 2014
Last date for admission: 27th August 2014

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